A history of a person's professional and/or non-professional employment.
A history of a person's formal schooling and/or training.
A formal document which identifies a person, outlines professional goals, describes work history and educational background, and identifies other activities, memberships in professional associations,etc., which are relevant to a career. It is a tool by which you market or sell your skills and expertise to a potential employer.
At one time, a Curriculum Vitae was the formal document used to describe your professional work and educational background. It has now been replaced by the resume, except in certain professions in academia which include social sciences, physical sciences, and education.
An introductory letter which introduces yourself, states your intent, and gives you an opportunity to summarize your skills and sell what you can offer to a company. Most companies require a cover letter in addition to a resume.
A statement which expresses your professional ambitions and/or career objectives.
Tasks which you feel you excel at, positive personality traits that you feel that you possess, and skills that you sell to a potential employer. Strengths can include superior communication skills, high analytical ability, technical skills, managerial prowess, creativity, people skills, and desirable personality traits.
Areas that you perceive that you need improvement in, whether it be work habits, business knowledge, communication, etc. Any potential weakness must be spun into a positive answer which converts it into a potential strength.