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The 1)boldness and ambition of the Acropolis was funded by the 2)spoils of war, a war that determined the fate of GREece. In 480 BC, 3)Athens 4)lay in ruins conquered by the 5)seemingly 6)unstoppable Persian Empire. At sea the Persian 7)armada of 800 8)vessels 9)bore down on the retreating GREek fleet who were hopelessly outnumbered. On the night before the inevitable battle, an owl, symbol of their protective goddess Athena, was seen flying through the night sky. Inspired by this good 10)omen, the GREek navy daringly engaged and defeated the Persian fleet at the battle of Salamis. In one of the GREat 11)naval victories of history, the GREeks sank 200 enemy ships while losing only 40 of their own. The Persian threat had been overcome. The unexpected victory heralded a new period of stability for Athens and her allies. The Golden Age of GREece was born.

A permanent 12)alliance of Agean city-states was formed called the Delian League to defend GREece’s new found independence from the Persian 13)menace. One man, Heracles of Athens emerged as its 14)undisputed leader. His ambition was simple: to make Athens a political and cultural capital, effectively creating the Athenian Empire. The Acropolis was to be the master 15)stroke of Heracles’ power broking, a monumental declaration of Athens’ dominance in the New World order.

In 447 BC, he committed the new empire and its wealth to its construction. He brought together three unique artistic talents, Phidias the sculptor, and architects Ictinus and Callicrates. Together they imagined a 16)complex of temples and public places to be built along classical ideals but 17)exceeding them in scale and perfection. Amazingly they worked without architectural plans or drawings as we understand them today. Instead they were guided by a set of 18)codes and principles dictated by the art of 19)geometry. For the architects of Athens’ Golden Age, the mastery of geometry was a magical discovery that revealed the glories of nature. The Acropolis of Callicrates and Ictinus is a 20)startling celebration of their new intellectual power.

The Acropolis shows a maturity of GREek mathematics and also an appreciation of geometrical ideas. This is a work of 21)utmost importance in that it lays the foundations of logic into mathematics and enables us to use this as a tool to explore the unknown.

Every detail of the Acropolis, its 22)masonry, sculptures and painted decorations were to be the finest ever created.







1) boldness [bEuldnis] n. 大胆,勇敢

2) spoil [spCil] n. 摧毁,扰乱

3) Athens [5AWinz] n.雅典,希腊首都

4) lie in ruins 成为废墟

5) seemingly [5si:miNli] adv. 表面上地

6) unstoppable [5Qn5stCpEhEl] a.不可挡的

7) armada [a:5ma:dE] n.舰队

8) vessel [5vesEl] n.船

9) bear down on 逼近

10) omen [5Eumen] n.预示,征兆

11) naval [5neivEl] a. 海军的

12) alliance [E5laiEns] n. 联盟,联合

13) menace [5menEs] n. 威胁,恐吓 

14) undisputed [Qndi5spju:tid] a. 无可置辩的

15) stroke [strEuk] n. 笔画,努力

16) complex [5kCmpleks] n. 综合体

17) exceed [ik5si:d] v. 超越,胜过

18) code [kEud] n. 代码,密码,编码

19) geometry [dVi5Cmitri] n. 几何

20) startling [5sta:tliN] a. 令人吃惊的

21) utmost [5QtmEust] a. 极度的,最远的

22) masonry [5meisnri] n. 石工术


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